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Varieties of pROTECTIONISM:
Neoliberal reform in the arab world 

Despite decades of international pressure, Arab regimes' adoption of trade liberalizing policies has been varied, selective, and often ineffective; neoliberal trade policies have not deepened international trade in many Arab markets. This book explains why. 


Varieties of Protectionism argues that geopolitics and social connections between state and capital shape the Arab world's uneven trade policies. When regimes have strong support from global powers like the United States (US) or the European Union (EU) and strong social connections to industrialists, they engage in extensive but deceptive trade policy reform: Behind an edifice of liberalizing trade policies, illicit forms of protectionism like tax evasion, insider information, and uncompetitive procurement shield the socially connected from international competition. Industrialists opposed to trade liberalization are less trustful of regime promises of neopatrimonial protection after reform when they have weak social connections to their regime and their regime has low geopolitical value to foreign patrons. These opponents are more likely to mobilize to defend existing protectionist policies under these conditions, resulting in less trade policy reform. International and domestic factors interact to shape the Arab world's uneven trade policy landscape.

Combining deep case knowledge with advanced quantitative methods, this award-winning manuscript advances a new argument for why protectionist policies persist in some Arab markets, and not others. It is currently production at Cornell University Press with expected publication in Spring 2025.


Invited Talks (Recordings)

Varieties of Protectionism, University College London (UCL), April 26, 2024 (Virtual).




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